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  1. 3 likes
    The logic in getting more weight on the front, as I understand it, is that more pressure/weight on the front tire will increase friction (friction increases with weight) and also flatten the tire out more, making the contact patch larger, which doesn't increase friction directly (friction is not dependent on area, just weight) but CAN help the tire because too much pressure in too small an area can (I think) overheat the rubber and reduce the coefficient of friction, which WOULD reduce the overall grip. (Note - this is me giving you my own understanding, this is not superbike-school endorsed info.) Getting more weight on the front also can tighten up your steering by compressing the forks - but you can also get a similar effect with hook steering or changing your geometry or suspension settings. So that all works well for turn ENTRY, however once have turned the bike and have reached your desired lean angle and are pointed in the direction you want to go, if you don't get on the gas you will just keep slowing down. The best scenario for traction once you DO roll on the gas is: 40/60 weight distribution. Thus, the throttle control rule, "Once the throttle is cracked on..." So, the way I look at it, is while you are still slowing down and getting the bike turned, the weight on the front is a good thing (to a point - obviously using too much trail braking while turning can exceed your front tire traction), and once you are back on the gas, 40/60 is the way to go for best stability (we are no longer making lean angle changes at that point) and traction. Does that make sense? Do you remember from level 1 exactly WHEN you are supposed to START rolling on the gas?
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    Body Position The most obvious thing about any rider is their form on the bike. How do they sit and move on it? What’s their posture? Do they look comfortable or awkward, stiff or loose, Moto GP, or nervous-novice? Good body positioning isn’t just about being stylish——you can play dress-up in your older brother's or sister's cool boots but walking will be clumsy——it has a desirable result and we can define 'good body positioning'. Harmony with the bike, freedom of movement on it, precision control over it―with the minimum necessary effort. Survival Reactions Play a Role The bike itself can force poor riding posture. A shift lever positioned a ¼ inch too high or too low manipulates the rider into awkward and uncomfortable poses, limiting his control over it. Even with perfect control positioning, good form on the bike has its difficulties. Achieving it may look and even feel like it’s reserved for the young and flexible. This may be true to a degree but many of its problems are actually brought on by our own Survival Reactions, our SRs. For example, a rider who instinctively levels the horizon by tilting his head in corners, creates unnecessary tension in his body. Basics Apply Good form is difficult for riders who struggle with basics: uncertainty with basics has a physical manifestation. Just as joy or anger are obvious in someone, these uncertainties manifest themselves in awkward and unsuitable body positions. For example: poor throttle control prompts riders to rely on slash and burn hard drives out of the turns. Their 'ready-for-action', rigid body language telegraphs their intention. That tense anticipation of the drive off the turns loses them the handling benefits of being relaxed mid-corner. The Stages of Body Positioning There are three stages to body positioning: Poor form + poor riding = ripple-effect, snowballing errors. Good riding + poor form = good but limited range of control. Good form + good technical riding skills = riding that is both fluid and efficient. Number 3 is the goal of any rider training. The Ingredients Body Positioning has five distinct ingredients. The bike and how it is configured——its controls, seat, pegs and bar positioning. The rider's understanding of body positioning——how to properly position himself on the bike and why. Our Survival Reactions——how they create unwanted and often unconscious tension and positioning problems. Lack of riding basics——has or hasn't mastered the core technical skills needed to ride well. The rider's own physical limitations——height, weight, flexibility, conditioning. With those five points under control, specific techniques can be employed to achieve positive benefits in bike control. Form, Function and Technique GP body position does not address or improve 90% of the most basic and vital components of riding: Our sense of traction, speed, lean angle, braking, and line, to name a few, are not directly dependent upon or necessarily improved by stylish form. Clearly, body positioning isn't the universal panacea some think it is, but it has its place. For example, holding the body upright, counter to the bike’s lean while cornering has several negative effects. Among these, is the fact that it positions the rider so he can’t fully relax. This can be quickly corrected and solves the functional problem of tension from cramped and restrictive joint alignment: a key element in allowing any rider to relax. A bike related example would be too high or too low brake or clutch lever. It puts the rider's wrist into misalignment and restricts fluid movement. The Rules of Technique Here are my guidelines for technique. Any riding technique is only as good as: The validity of the principles it rests on. Example: The benefits of hanging off follow physics and engineering principles. The access it provides to the technology with which the bike is designed and constructed. Are the potentials of chassis, suspension and power able to be utilized as intended? Does the technique embrace them? The consistency with which it can be applied. Does it work in all similar situations? The degree of control it provides for the rider. Can the rider either solve problems or make improvements, or both, by using it? The ease with which it can be understood and coached. Does it take extraordinary experience or skill to apply it, or, can it be broken down into bite sized pieces for any rider to master? Which brings us to my first law of body positioning. Stability Comes in Pairs. Bike and rider stability are always paired―rider instability transfers directly to the bike. Body Positioning has but one overriding guideline: Rider stability. How a rider connects to the bike can bring about harmony and control and fluid movement or turn into an uncoordinated wrestling match. Ideal Stability Having stability AND fluidity of movement sounds conflicting; when something is stable it’s expected to stay put, unmoving, like the foundation of your house or the roots of a tree. But the opposite is true for riding. Comfort And Stability What works well on a paddock-stand doesn't always transfer to real riding. Aftermarket rearsets, which can be adjusted (or which are manufactured) too far up, back, forward or down is an example. In the paddock they feel racy; on the road or track they can fatigue the rider. The fatigue comes from the rider's core not being correctly supported. This causes him to be off balance. Off-balance generates extra effort from muscle tension and poor joint alignment which in turn hampers accurate control manipulations. Awkward looking body position is what you see. Riders often accept or try and work around this, without realizing its negative impact on their riding. Simply Complicated Through research and coaching of tens of thousands of riders of all skill levels, 58 separate elements which influence our body positioning have surfaced. Seemingly simple things such as too tight a pair of gloves or leathers can affect all the other elements. Once the 58 are corrected and integrated, the rider has many more options; opening doors to a wide range of fun, efficient and, you might say, elegant techniques. All of our coaches have been thoroughly drilled on what each of the 58 are and how to correct them. © 2014 Keith Code, all rights reserved. This article may not be reproduced in any form without the author's consent.
  3. 2 likes
    Riding a curved on-ramp at the speed limit with a cop behind you.
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    it's all relative. Maintenance throttle in turn 8 at willow Springs on a SV650 is 100%
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    I think I read that in TotW and/or from Level 1 training. Aim for a weight distribution of 60/40 Rear/Front bc our rear tire has more rubber on the road. Something got me thinking about that today and I'm now having trouble making sense of it. I think I've heard about people using setup to get *more* not less weight on the front to improve turning. I thought the logic there was that more weight on the front tire generates more heat and also gets a bigger contact patch. Why would we use throttle to reduce both of those things on the smaller front tire? It seems to me like doing so would simultaneously increase the risk of a high side as well as a low side. There's probably a lot of nuance and subtlety there but I'd rather ask for clarification than assume I figured it out on my own and then risk doing something inadvisable on an indirect route to the hospital.
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    OK I read back through this whole thread, and yes, bringing in Throttle Control Rule #2 seems to have added some confusion, as I personally got stuck on trying to discuss the throttle control rule. After reading back over it all, it seems that the OP's real questions was, does it really cause any problem to let off the gas fast or pull in the brake abruptly, it seems like people do it all the time.... I think the answer to that is situational, depending on how much traction you have and how much you are willing to upset the chassis. And also, of course, how fast you need to slow down, and how accurate you need/want to be when setting your entry speed. Example, if you are riding your S1000rr in first gear, wide open throttle, 12,000 rpm and you instantly chop the throttle you will feel a very abrupt change in the bike, potentially enough to affect your accuracy in an upcoming turn. However, if you are in sixth gear at 4000rpm, wide open throttle, and let off abruptly, that's not going to be such a violent change, it may not bother you to rock the chassis that amount. The weight shift is even more pronounced with braking, of course; but it is a matter of priorities. Upsetting the chassis with abrupt brake application may very well be worth it, especially if you need to get it slowed down in a hurry. For sure I can think of corners where I am coming down from high speed to low speed, traction is good, I am straight up and down, where I let off the throttle and bring in the brake as fast as I can - upsetting the chassis is OK with me, I know the front will dive down hard, but my priority is braking in the shortest possible distance and the majority of braking is done at the beginning and I need time for gradual release as I enter the corner. But I can also think of places where I am entering a corner leaned over, or the surface is bumpy, and I apply the brake more gradually to maintain the best suspension/traction scenario, to avoid bottoming the forks or overloading the front tire. One thing we have been taught is that if you slam the front brake on so fast that there is no time for the weight shift to the front tire to increase your traction, you can slide the front tire. Is that a problem? Maybe not, if you are going in a straight line and don't scare easily. Lord knows we see pros doing some really scary things on the brakes, things most of us don't really want to have happen on a Sunday ride (like stoppies, rear wheel hop, back end wagging around, back end stepping out, etc.) I'm going to run this question by Dylan and/or Keith and see what exactly Dylan was trying to communicate and get more details on different scenarios - braking while leaned over, wet conditions, etc.
  7. 2 likes
    Think of the muscles in your back and your abs, as ratchet straps that support your torso. If you don't tighten them evenly, one will be overtightened. In most cases the lower back contracts to far leading to pain and loss of strenght.
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    This is the way I understand throttle control rule number two in Chapter 6: Fine modulation of the throttle helps you read the forces that you feel more accurately. The advantage of that is that your entry speed will be more consistent and appropriate than if you grossly decelerate in a hurry (charging the curve), just to find out that your entry speed (at the end of that precipitate deceleration) is lower than it should be (because your senses were overwhelmed, you are erring on the safe side of entry speed). The error about the entry speed is more significant for any fast-entry turn, especially due to the aerodynamic drag explained by Hotfoot above.
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    Surely the law in your country allows you to practise your religion! 😂
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    I found 2 exercises made a huge difference in my ability to ride without fatigue. They're both hitting the same area so you can do either one. Romanian deadlift and back hyper-extension. You can buy a kettle bell or some dumbbells for the deadlift and do them at home. If you belong to a gym, the hyper-extension allows for greater isolation but they both work great. Start light and do 20 reps a day for a couple of weeks. I found it not only made riding easier but also improved my posture. I'm never tired, my wrists never hurt, my back is strong enough stay low and move side to side without issues. Interestingly, I my fitbit records my rides as cardio.
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    Unit came in last Saturday. Was a good weather day so went riding of course. That evening I reviewed the instructions and on-line videos Heal Tech has. Then I began stripping of side panels, seats, fuel tank, and airbus (these steps by far are the most complicated and time consuming of the install, so if you can handle that you can install one of these). Next morning (Sunday) I spent some time deciding how to route cables and locate things. Basically you have the coil harness and module, shift rod sensor, and actual QS Easy module. The coil harness connects between spark plug ignition coils and the bikes coil harness and then to a negative ground. This then has a lead that routes back to tail section where main QS module lies. Sensor is installed on the shift rod and connected back to unit in tail section. That's it except for putting everything back on bike. Setting up and monitoring it is done through your smart phone!!! Other than the initial setup process and some playing with bike on stand, haven't gotten to ride on street as its been raining. Once I get out on road will give a report back. https://www.healtech-electronics.com/products/qse/
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    I do this myself. The most useful thing that I get is the "picture in my mind" of what the track is like. One of the things I have noticed however is once you actually get there reality tends to be a little different than what you were expecting. As Hotfoot mentioned there's lots of things that don't come across in video such as elevation changes and also logistics of moving around on the bike. A really good example of this is the elevation change on the long straight at COTA. I was really looking forward to blasting down that straight at 180+mph with a gigantic smile on my face but the elevation change caused a complete lack of visibility and that does not come across very well in video. Needless to say the first few sessions I was not doing 180 due to the visibility. I actually ended up enjoying the shorter straight near start finish a lot more. Although the speed was slower having a massive up hill elevation change made it so you barely had to touch the brakes to be at the perfect speed to enter the corner at the end. It was like having your cake and being able to eat it too. All the front wheel lifting acceleration you wanted without the chore of having to get on the brakes hard. One other thing which is amusing that I have had a fun experience with. Video games. I have a video game with Road Atlanta as one of the tracks. I was able to put in blistering lap times on the video game and could not wait to ride the track. When I rode the track the reality was quite different from the simulation. I won't bore you with details but I have yet to ride Road Atlanta again despite it being so close to my house because of how horrible of an experience I had. I actually think that my game play slightly hurt my ability to learn the track with an open mind. Certainly watch the videos and study the track maps but be ready to actually learn the track by riding it yourself. Most importantly be ready to adapt when the reality becomes different than what you were expecting.
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    Oh I like it! The "riders prayer". We should write a cool one a post it up.
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    Cool story. Read this: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-bicycle-problem-that-nearly-broke-mathematics/#
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    This interview with me appeared in the April issue of Roadracing World magazine. I thought you might like to see it. John Ulrich was kind enough to give me a PDF version of the interview for you to read. http://superbikeschool.com/files/code-rw-interview.pdf The file is 600K and requires Acrobat Reader 5 or newer to view it.
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    This sounded a little odd to me so I watched the video. Here is what jumped out at me: The title of the video is: Ninja 300 shock causes tire wear. The first thing he says is that the bike has a stock shock, and that he is suggested this riding change as a way to compensate for that stock shock. My interpretation of that is that you could manage the problem temporarily by adjusting your riding but what you should REALLY do is check your suspension settings (or possibly the geometry) to FIX the problem, by setting it up so that the tire is not so unloaded or bouncing at corner entries. I'd also verify your tire pressure, as I suspect that tire pressure too high could aggravate the problem. I'm not a suspension expert and you should ask someone who is - but from what Dave Moss said, it sounded like the shock was not keeping the tire planted so maybe slower rebound, and possibly softer on compression, might help to keep the rear tire from bouncing up and down. Have you had the sag set properly on your bike for your weight? Have you checked the spring rate to see if your weight is within the recommended range for it? It seems like a better plan to fix the mechanical issue rather than changing your riding style to compensate - unless, of course, you are just trying to get through a race or practice day like the rider in the video. Also... there is a WORLD of difference between throttle at 30% on a Ninja 300 and throttle at 30% on an S1000rr! 40hp versus 200hp and the BMW only weights about 60 lbs more than the Ninja. I don't think I'd assume that piece of advice would apply the same from that bike to yours, you might get a different effect. For the sake of discussion, what sort of effects do you think you would notice on your bike's handling if you put the throttle on 30% entering a turn?
  17. 1 like
    Somewhere in motorcycle setup history, some genius discovered the benefit of using tires with dissimilar profiles. Probably this same genius realized that the caster effect of the front wheel begins to work for the rider when he relaxes on the bars and allows the pro-steering to happen and caster then tracks the desired line while he simply communicated to the machine that the desired line had been established. There's a certain training program espousing to riders techniques that maximize front tire traction. And while they work, it disregards any consideration of the fact that the rear tire can break traction. The 60/40 idea is about each tire taking on it's fair share of load in any given cornering situation. Now I'm going to sit back and munch on popcorn, because I tried very hard to add value without stealing Hotfoot's thunder - because I am doing my mind-reading thing now and know where she's going (smile) in her response. So listen to and interact with her and I'll shut up now.
  18. 1 like
    Ah, now I see where your question is coming from, this makes more sense. I agree that the danger of applying the brake too fast is in applying it TOO MUCH. If you are really, really good and know exactly how much brake pressure is needed and have good enough control to get right to it instantly, then YES, go for it, that makes sense. However, not everyone is that good so it is understandable that riders are taught (or learn through experience) not to snatch the front brake. There are things that happen that do change with time, as you can observe and experience directly for yourself. The front shock compresses as you shift weight forward, this takes time - not a lot, but it is not instant, because the forks do actually move and that takes some time. Same with front tire flattening; it's very fast, but it ain't instant, and a slow motion camera would show this, the tire has to actually flex. Then there is the rider - a time lapse video would show the effect of deceleration/weight transfer on the rider. Because those things are occurring, the situation can and does change over time - for example, a hard grab of the brake can cause the rider to tense up the arms and fall forward, and the effect can worsen as the front end of the bike dives down, so what should NOT have been a front tire slide (based on brake pressure alone) can become one due to the increased load on the front due to the rider's weight and restriction of the bar movement. This is where it gets complicated to reconcile theory and real world experience - it is difficult, with theory alone, to account for all of the variables created by the bike and rider. There is a great discussion of this in The Soft Science of Motorcycle Racing, I will have to look and see what chapter that is in.
  19. 1 like
    I think the simplest solution would be for you to go ride and try it and see what actual results you get. It shouldn't take a lot of muscle effort to just sit on the bike, but when braking hard or trying to hang off it will take more. During the braking and hanging off times, try doing it with abs slack, and then try tightening your whole core and see what gives you better support and less stress and muscle fatigue on your back. If you want to get really serious about getting strong, flexible, and comfortable on the bike, get into yoga. I coached a guy recently on body position - he was 2-3x older than everyone else in the group with him and way more flexible and strong on the bike. I mentioned it and he said he started doing yoga and was astonished at the difference it made. I've heard this enough times to take it quite seriously, it definitely seems to work.
  20. 1 like
    After reading this I got out my big exercise ball (the one big enough to sit on) and started doing hyperextentions and planks. Both really help and I agree with BSM, it just makes you feel better.
  21. 1 like
    I've been looking for this thread earlier today and couldn't find it. I know that my skills have improved because my attention was not stuck on my SRs firing off, checking my fun. I commuted to work yesterday then back home, then to class. I'd forgotten that I had on my dark shield as I stopped by the motorcycle shop to check on my wife's bike, and I stayed too long. I had to race the remaining daylight. It was the most fun I've had in a long time. I was smoother, faster and more in control of putting the bike exactly where I wanted and we were a better meld.
  22. 1 like
    Yep. Good understanding! If you have the Twist II DVD there is also a good illustration on there showing the effect on the front tire when you abruptly chop the throttle. Regarding your other question about the quote in Twist II on throttle control - I don't really know the answer on that one, I want to get that info from Keith or Dylan or Cobie but they are on the road at schools right now so I'm not sure when I will hear back. I'll post up when I have the info for you, or one of them will. It could be that he was referring to bikes that may have jerked a bit when the throttle was first applied, as opposed to our newer 1000cc bikes that have a much more predictable and smooth throttle response.
  23. 1 like
    It's "bad" weather when MotoGP doesn't run- Ha!
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    In the photos above, the one with the rider down low, it was brought up that his head (and maybe a little of the torso) is not as far to the inside. I think that is where diff in lean angle comes from. As for street applicablity, I for sure don't hang off when riding on the street (w/lower body). One reason is I'm just too lazy. But...if one can take out some lean angle (use less), and in particular do it quickly if needed by getting the upper body more to the inside, this can be a good thing: water across the road, sand/dirt, or some other traction reducing issue.
  25. 1 like
    My theory is that the top out spring in my 2006 CBR1000RR fork is not only progressive but it's variable.Full range of travel yields 16mm of preload adjustment from all the way out at 0 to full stop.At full out, the installed preload was measured at 8mm. At 6 turns it's at 9mm and at 12.5 turns it's at 15mm.Someone please explain to me what's going on here. Aftermarket springs are 260mm, stock was 217mm (from memory). The preload spacer was cut from 100mm to 73mm
  26. 1 like
    In practice I feel that a higher body position causes more side movements and stress on the rear tires. The air turbulence on the upper body increases the problem. Can you imaging riding a 90mph corner with that body position? Also I'm not clear about the physics in the illustrations: in the last example I understand the center of gravity has more leverage because it's taller, but it's also farther away from the center of the tire and the bike axe. Isn't that another source of leverage that works against the bike stability?
  27. 1 like
    are the "articles" archived? i remember one a few months ago (about weighting the foot pegs) and i never saved the email. gotta believe that good stuff is saved somewhere... and i'd like to re-read that email.
  28. 1 like
    My preference with my outside foot is to put the ball of my foot on the peg and drive my heel up into the heel guard which helps stabilize my lower leg. I have small feet and can't reach the heelguard if I slide my foot down to the arch/instep. When I began coaching I started to REALLY notice it when a rider would come by me on the freeway with their toes sticking way down past the peg. I know it's probably more comfortable for long rides but it sure does catch my attention. What about dirt riding? For those of you that do any dirt riding, where do you put your feet?
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    I do it on occasion when I street ride. It mainly is just to make me feel good inside (small dose of vanity)...chasing the mental image of a guy I saw years ago get stupid low around a 90 degree corner. I don't see any downside from doing it EXCEPT the perception that you're hotdogging....and hanging-off for some reason causes the right wrist to roll on that thingy on the handlebar. You are committed to making the turn- there's no last instant change because a bozo is coming at you, must have that worked out beforehand. When I have a junior rider following me, I move over into position to signal to them that a turn is coming and I'm going that way and this much.
  32. 1 like
    Ha ok. Well the socks I'm currently wearing are samples from a manufacturer that were sent to me for testing. I have been a huge fan of bamboo and my favorite socks are no longer available. So out of sheer "being totally desparate" I'm testing out as many yarns as I can as I'd like to make my own socks specifically for riding. So far I'm on day 3 of wearing them and they still smell like roses. They are unbelievably soft as well, pretty much like walking on clouds. I'm going to wash them a number of times to see how they wear, but I've been told they stay soft just like my bamboo socks did. Another bonus, they are supposed to be extremely durable. I can show you the fabric end of this month when I'm at CSS but they will be well worn by then so beware hahah. I looked up "tencel socks" and there are a few companies that use the yarns so I think in the mean time I'll find a good company and buy my daily wearers from them. I truly don't think I can go back to pure cotton, poly, or nylon. Especially cotton.
  33. 1 like
    At Amazon they have Twist I in used but very good condition for $9.51, and Twist II for $11.98, both fulfilled by Amazon with free shipping if the order reaches $25. However, this rider needs to scrape up five more dollars than the given limit to make this purchase of both books. In speaking with my local librarian I learned that book borrowing in this area is far overshadowed by multimedia today. The person you are dealing with may be part of the generation that would tend to choose multimedia. So it may be an uphill battle pushing the book recommendation, but I personally would explain the advantages of the books that others mentioned, that they are more detailed than the videos and that they can be referred back to easily. Signed, Highly Biased Book Lover
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    I think this is where you see a big difference between the big bikes and small bikes - on the smaller displacement machines it is all about carrying corner speed, you see a much higher entry speed and the rider carrying a lot more speed in the corner - that smoother, flowing style. I also think club racers on 600/1000cc bikes are inundated with advice to "brake until the apex", so they end up trying to apply that in practically every corner and end up giving up way too much corner speed as a result. Then they feel like they have to get on the gas really hard to try to make it up, or to stay ahead of the guy they see coming up behind or around them. You don't hear a lot of "brake until the apex" advice if you are on a 250. I am saying "they" because I have seen plenty of others do it, but I certainly have done the same thing myself! It "feels" faster on the 1000cc bike to brake really hard, and gas it really hard, and even with all the training I have I tend to fall into that trap if I am "trying" to go as fast as I can. I got towed around recently by a top pro rider and guess what? Higher entry speeds, higher corner speed, and he was gentler on both the brakes and throttle than I was. Sigh, it was a reminder that just getting on the gas harder is not the solution.
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    I thought I understood apex orientation, but in a school not long ago, my L4 consultant used one of the new iPad visual aid tools and I discovered an aspect of the technique I wasnt using and it allowed me to enter AO corners faster and with more confidence.
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    This track is only a few hours from home. Have never been there. Has the school been there before and does anyone have any opinions of it? I love VIR but is a lot longer drive.
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    My whole mission is to well, of course race. But I'm building a support team for up and coming riders/racer (female). Unless, of course if you want, anyone male can help support with any advice, gear, hotel and paddock sharing etc. My RV is open on track and race days. Website almost running. Trying to focus on finishing my racebike. AFM is right around the corner.
  38. 1 like
    There's an aviation version for Student Pilots: "...and if I have an equipment failure, Dear Lord, please let it be the Hobbs meter" :-) Hobbs Meter- A device that counts the amount of time the aircraft is in operation; billing is proportional to the Hobbs meter.
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    Oh this is a very cool topic! I follow my instincts closely and also believe that sometimes the universe is telling you things. If its a God or a spirit or just the the "universe" it doesn't matter. The fact of the matter is that I cope better under tension knowing that there is greater force out there with some sort of intent. For example, if I get a strong feeling that I should not be riding, I likely won't go out that session, or at least I won't push it hard. I've had many instances where my instincts were right (Ie mechanical failure during a race). Also if something does happen like my bike going for a slide or the engine blowing, I usually feel that it was meant to happen for a reason. This lowers my stress levels, allows me to accept the situation as it is and make steps to move forward without all that wasted energy on blaming myself, others, etc. I also feel more confident at times, knowing that I've got some sort of guardian angels watching over me. I think religion helps us with tuning in a little closer to our bodies, to our instincts. It takes a lot of the stress of life off of our hands and puts it in the hands of a higher power. It is a powerful coping mechanism. It is humbling and liberating to know there is some greater stuff out there that we don't understand and that we don't have to try to take full control over everything. To top it off, I think whatever someone believes about themselves and their capabilities...is true.
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    Rchase, there might be other factors at play...personalities and coaching is a whole subject in itself, and also a technology or system might not be perfect. For the sake of this thread, just looking at workability of a technology. For example on most any modern street bike, built for many years (that is a standard or sport bike) the front brake will lift the rear wheel off the ground. This is a fact, easily provable. So being able to use the front effectively is key. A good point you make, sometimes looking at something and simply saying, "that doesn't make sense, or work." If backed up with solid observation, and honest trial, that's a good thing. (As a side comment, it's a bit of a skill to really observe and honestly try something--not everyone can put aside all bias or preconceived ideas). Now, the next part to look at is a hierarchy of information: what are the MOST important pieces, what does one really want to understand well, and know like the back of one's hand? Like Keith's observations on Throttle Control: understanding that bit of motorcycle riding technology has saved my ass so many times (and explained the problems I've had when I've had them). There are of course exceptions (very long turns, that tighten at the end for example). But the key fundamentals of good Throttle Control apply to any bike. Still making sense? I see a number of views to this thread, but not too many commenting, want to know if this is clear, feel free to chime in. CF
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    Ok. Here goes. Not to be obtuse but I think you can learn something from anyone even if it's "this guy is an idiot" or "what a catastrophically bad idea". I apply a similar "acid test" to any knowledge that I try to gain regardless of the source. If I'm brutally honest not everything I have learned at the school works for me out on track. It was worth hearing about and is good information but for my specific needs it did not work. (for those reading who aren't familiar with the school this is a TINY subset of what they teach and likely the malfunction is on my end rather than that of the school's) The best information is stuff you can get backed up with an explanation. If you can explain the "why" in a logical way even if it's fundamentally wrong it's a lot easier to understand the thought process used to develop the idea and perhaps adapt the concept to a way that might actually work. Science and technology is all built on millions and millions of wrong ways to do things. And even some of those "right ways" eventually became wrong ways when someone figured out a better way to get something accomplished. My .02
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    Hey Nic. Missed this one. Glad to hear you turned things around! Let us know when you hit the grid for the first time! To answer Will's question. Nic had an accident during the school due to a rather aggressive approach that he's now started to reconsider. To protect other riders course control asked Nic not to ride anymore which was completely reasonable considering the circumstances. It's their job to protect the learning environment at the track for all the riders. Nic and I have chatted on and off since his incident which has been very helpful for both of us. We both have a diametrically opposed approach to riding. I was on the overly conservative end (which I have reconsidered due to conversations with Nic) and he's at the other end of the spectrum. Both of us have learned a lot from "the opposite point of view". I have ventured out of my safe and completely predictable style and Nic has learned some of the "slow is fast" mindset which ultimately will help him in the long run. A respectful dissonance can be quite helpful to anyone. Questioning ideas but also listening to them allows you to question your own thoughts on the matter and you can learn something in the process. You just have to listen and think about things. On the flip side of that. Conversations with someone with the same problems can be quite helpful as well. I have had some conversations with a track day coach that's had some of the same issues that I have suffered from over the years. Hearing the solutions to the problems gives me some ideas on how to approach solving them myself. Perhaps I'll ultimately solve them in different way but it's super helpful to have a bit more understanding.
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    Unfortunately, I had an interesting lesson in overdoing a quick-turn at Barber the last day of CSS that I think is relevant to this discussion. Unfortunately it resulted in a crash. I was riding hard attempting to catch up to my coach who was chasing another student and had the right side of my tires nice and warm as a result. However, the extreme left edge of my tire was still relatively cold (another of the many lessons from this crash) and I wasn't aware of that. Coming into the final (left) corner prior to the front straight, I quick flicked the bike in at a very high speed (both the flick and the entry speed) and almost immediately lost the front. Fortunately, nobody was hurt and damage was minimal. The quick-turn lesson from this, after much discussion with several coaches, was: the fast rate of steering didn't DIRECTLY cause the crash, it was the cold edge of the tire once I got it there. The tire was able to take the FORCE of the quick-steering just fine, but the reason the quick-flick was an issue was that I didn't get the chance to feel indications that the tire edge was cold in time to stop leaning the bike over. Had I steered the bike more slowly, I would have been able to feel the cues the cold edge would have given me in time to prevent the complete loss of traction. The bigger issue was really my awareness of the cold edge on the less used side of the tire, but since this thread is about quick-turning, I thought the quick-turn lesson would be a good one. This is a big reason you don't quick-turn on cold tires... It's less because they won't take the force while steering, and more about giving yourself a chance to feel where the cold tire traction limit is before you exceed it. Benny
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    The Fine Art of Braking By Keith Code By survey 100% of over 10,000 riders agree on this point: they know that if they possessed the ability and skill to get their turn entry speeds consistently right, their confidence would soar; they would feel more in control; they would be faster and they would be smoother. Here is some information on why you might want to master that ability. Coasting Races In the mid '70's I was introduced to an amazing form of "racing". Four or five of us would get together at the top of one of our favorite southern California canyon descents; turn off the engines; line up across the road; heckle each other; count to three; pick up our feet without pushing off any more than was necessary to get moving and laugh and yell out insults to one another all the way down to the bottom. Most of the runs were a couple of miles long with lots of turns. That's a coasting race. The rider who coasted the farthest and fastest (they were usually the same rider) "won". There weren't any tricks, equipment mattered little, it was all you. Well, I did have one little trick -- pushing the pads back into my front caliper to eliminate the pad drag. The camaraderie was elevated enormously by the fact that, unlike our usual canyon rides we could, for the most part, communicate throughout the descent. It was such a delight. Even when it went wrong and someone crashed (like me) I still have fond memories and get a warm sensation when recalling it. Strategy of Coasting Races On the technical side of things: I was immediately impressed with several aspects of this form of entertainment and a couple of those points were indelibly printed in my memory and became a part of the California Superbike School over 20 years ago. The simple trick to winning a coasting race is the obvious, the rider who could maintain his momentum by using his brakes the least generally would prevail. Doing an entire run down some of the steeper roads with little or no braking took as much or more mental grip than doing it with them, this becoming immediately apparent in the first semi-tight corner you came to. Unwilling to give up the momentum yet afraid of the speed which had accumulated, your focus and interest became laser sharp. Sure your hand would be poised over the lever and sure it took some supreme acts of willpower to keep from using brakes and sure you would make errors and have to use the brakes but you also paid closer attention to the speeds than you normally would. The reduction of distractions like engine noise and gear changes and throttle and charging the corners with hard braking were all eliminated and it allowed you to make much finer estimates of your corner entry speeds and maintain that precious momentum. Low Noise, High Speeds After my first coasting race I realized I never would have gone through those turns with the power on as fast as I had done with no engine running, no charging and, for the most part, no brakes. It made me realize just how distracting those things really were and just how much of my attention they absorbed. One of the things I have noticed when I watch students is how erratic their turn entry speeds often are. That comes from the idea they have to charge the corners and brake hard but they can tend to over-brake and foul up their entry and corner speed momentum. Low Speeds, Quick Times One day, as I was driving up to the Laguna Seca track in northern California to do a school, I realized that if anyone was going to overcome this self generated confusion from over-braking, the quickest route to that was riding no brakes. Once I got to the track I tried it out and rediscovered what I'd already figured out before from the coasting races. I went faster into the turns, my speed sense and judgement became sharper, I worried less about my entry speed and found that getting back to the throttle earlier was significantly easier. I thought it would be worthwhile to have the students try it out. While it is true that some tracks lend themselves to this form of sharpening your riding skills better than others, I did begin to notice a trend at different tracks. The riders who stuck with the no brakes, even after we officially switched back to using them, made more improvement in their speed and confidence than those who were "testing" our brake pad material by charging the turns. Ignore the Instincts It's almost as if riders feel obligated to charge turns. It's the idea that you will go faster because of it and seems such a simple and direct route to that end but rarely works. The instinct to brake late and hard is like clubbing a female to then take her for a wife. That plan isn't going to work. I have observed many truly diligent riders who ignored the instinct and stayed with the No Brakes format knocking off seconds from their lap times. To top it off they were achieving their quicker times with only one or two gears instead of the usual thrashing through the gear box. They might be going 20 mph slower on the straights but one should pay attention to the results (improved lap times and corner speed) not the impulse to go fast on the straights. As I have said a thousand times, the brakes become more of a crutch than a tool for most riders. Someone always whines about the no-brakes riding format at school. Well, crutches are notoriously hard to put down, aren't they? Riders claim it is difficult (of course it is), that they could go faster with them (faster down the straight away, yes); that they "had" to use them (the crutch again) and on and on. What these riders don't realize is how satisfying it is to persevere at the exercise until you really get it, so you really can judge your entry speeds and really know you can do it. Very, very satisfying. Very, very big contribution to your riding confidence. Very! The Basic Idea The logic is flawless. Using or not using the brakes is irrelevant to the intended result of getting into the corner at the exact right speed. One either knows what that right speed is and can achieve it or they are guessing. If they are guessing they are paying more attention to it than they should have to. Guessing brings about inaccurate braking and inaccurate braking brings about rough and uncertain turn entries. Trail Braking (Definition: Action of trailing off or tapering off brake lever pressure and braking force as the rider enters the corner.) Trail braking is a valid and useful tool for any rider at any level of riding. The warning is this: when used too often, or as a crutch to calm the fear brought on by the inability to sense speeds accurately, it not only doesn't solve the source of the problem it makes it worse. As the pilot you must make the decision on when to let off of the brake(s). It is a complicated little piece of work with all of the other usual distractions you encounter at the turn's entry, e.g., setting the lean, getting the line and feeling the traction. Bottom line - if you are trailing the brakes towards a well known, accurately understood speed it is a tool. Otherwise it tends to become a crutch and invites riders to "charge" the turns, low line them, leave the throttle till late and make tricky and sometimes dangerous mid-corner steering corrections all of which could be avoided with accurate turn entry speed sensing and setting. Panic Crutch In contrast to the aforementioned, I see many riders who feel compelled to stab at their brakes in the last moments before entering a corner. While watching them do it, the only conclusion one would come to is that the speed was a big surprise; all of a sudden they become aware of it and it seemed too fast. This is an obvious error. They aren?t using the brake to adjust anything except their fear. In either of the above cases, an accurate sense of speed opens the door to confidence. Results Then and Now The essence and final result of any brake release for cornering remains what I said in 1980 in my first Superbike School lecture and on page 64 of the first ?A Twist of the Wrist? book in 1982: To set the speed of the bike correctly for that place on the track (or road) so that no further changes are necessary. In other words, you get it right. Not too fast, not too slow. Braking itself is an art within the art of cornering. Your sense-of-speed is the underlying resource you have to get it right. As an exercise, no brakes riding will help improve your sense-of-speed. Do no-brakes whenever you have the opportunity and see what happens to your sense of speed and see what happens to your riding. The best part is that once you have combined a good sense of speed with the other twelve basic skills of cornering it all begins to come together. It is truly one of the skills that allows you to discover the ART OF CORNERING. All the best, Keith ----- ⓒ Copyright Keith Code, 2004, all rights reserved
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    I’ve been asked this question a hundred times: “What could you possibly be coaching on a rider like ________ , who is already a podium guy at world championship level?” I’m pretty sure my face betrays me because I’ve never had what I’d call an intelligent answer. But people always expect something really wise, some new or miraculous aspect of riding they’d never thought of before. Of course it never is. It’s always something that is, in my mind at least, very simple, very basic, very mundane to the ear but very important to the rider who is struggling with it. See if these look familiar to you. How can I: Be more confident, Go faster, Find good lines, Brake harder, Lean over farther, Trust the grip of my tires, Not panic so often, Quit running wide in turns, Handle ‘S’ curves better, Not stiffen up on the bike, Feel more relaxed in corners, Have better entry speed, Stop target fixating, Keep balance and be confident at very low speeds, Be able to downshift smoothly, Get my knee down, Stop the bike wiggling in quick transitions, Make fewer steering corrections in corners, Handle a slide, Get better drives off the turns, Make smooth starts, Make the bike feel planted in all corners, Have good body position, Handle emergencies better, Brake in turns, Avoid obstacles and Improve my lap times? 25 items that are now, or have been in the past, on every rider’s punch list for improvement. Which ones are still on yours? There are answers for each of them; not just tricks you can do in a parking lot that will make a rider feel good―that I also know how to do―but the thing that actually allows them to tick it off of that list. I’ll give you an example. Over a 5 year period I’ve run one thousand street riders through a very controlled program that, amongst other riding skills, has improved their average stopping distance at 60 mph by 60 ft. That’s the width of the six lanes of Sunset Blvd at Sunset and Vine and a bike length more than the longest eighteen-wheel trailer. How long does that training take? About an hour. It consists of assessing and measuring the rider’s base line braking; then coaching him through the feel and fear of using the brakes; and finally, applying what they learned at full speed and re-measuring the stopping distances. Who was tested and trained in my research and development of this program? Riders on everything from choppers to dual sport to sport bikes to touring bikes participated. What was their experience? It ranged from as little as “I rode my friends bike twice,” well under a hundred miles, to several hundred thousand miles; mostly males, about 3% females. For the sticklers for details out there, the range of error for the distance testing was plus or minus 6 feet. Range of error for measured speed was plus or minus 2 mph. Would training that actually reduced your stopping distance by 25% to 50% be valuable to you? How would it make you feel if you could stop your motorcycle in roughly the same distance as the professional rider who tested your bike model for that magazine? How many lives would be saved if everyone had truly effective rider training? What’s the point of me telling you this? The technology exists to coach an average rider through well designed programs that don’t just bring them up to the skill level of passing a cone weave course in the DMV test area at 12 mph to get their bike license but could, in the very real world of riding, save their life. OK, this is cool. That is an example of a solution for one of the twenty-five punch list items, harder braking, and yes, there are solutions for the other twenty-four. For my part, I can’t decide if I derive more satisfaction from seeing a rider get onto the podium in world competition, or, coach someone who is completely inept and really should never ride a motorcycle, through to this level of breakthrough in their stopping distance or in some other area of their riding. I’ve asked myself that question a hundred times. © 2011, Keith Code, reserving my rights as usual.
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    Hey buddy. Glad you have the same brain as me and you are interested in this topic. I don't really agree with your statement though. A wider tire will suffer a greater difference between "visual lean angle" vs "effective lean angle" at all angles. In fact, at moderate lean angles such as 20 degrees I think the thick tire would suffer a bit less since your contact patch is still towards the center of the tire. As you lean farther and farther you get to the edge of the tire which can create a big difference between visual and effective lean angle. I drew up a picture of a bike leaning to 90 degrees visual lean. Note that effective lean angle of 90 degrees can never be reached. You MUST have an infinitely thin bike and tires. Something very magical happens as you get close to 90 degree effective lean angle. With "out of this world" tires you could get to lateral G's as high as you want as you approach 90 degree lateral G's approach infinity. In other words, you could never lean the bike 90 degrees even if you had infinitely thin tires and blke because even when pulling 10,000G's the force of gravity will pull your bike down at 9.81m/s^2. At 89 degrees lean angle you would need to execute a 57 lateral G turn and it would actually be possible if your tires can have that coefficient of friction and your body can withstand it hahaha It is very sad that bikes and their physical dimensions only allow a 60 degree lean or so. Once you get past 60 degrees things can really get nasty - in a good way! The difference between a 60 degree and a 70 degree lean is at 60 you do 1.7G's and at 70 you do 2.7G's!!! At 80 degrees you could do 5.6!!!! At that point we can corner better than a F1 car!!! It's almost as if bikes have hit this barrier where they are not limited by grip of the tires. They are limited by physical dimensions and the amount of lean possible according to those dimensions. As better tire compounds advance through technology, we will never benefit in terms of mid-corner phase (mid corner speeds) but only in the aggressiveness of our trail braking / power out of the corner. Mid corner speeds are sort of set in stone, nomatter what we do with our tires. A cool thing about a bike that is mentioned briefly in Code's article is it has built in "aero" in the turns... Most racecars need a fins to generate artificial gravity (downforce). The problem with fins is that anytime you create lift (down or up lift) you create drag which slows those cars on the straights. On a bike when you turn the resulting force travels through the bike. In other words, the bike gets sucked into the ground the more you lean. Just like in geometry, when you do a 45 degree lean, like a 45 degree triangle, where the opposite, and adjacent are 1, makes the hypotenuse 1.4. At 45 degree lean, a bike and rider that weigh 600 pounds would put a force on the tire of 600*1.4 = 840 pounds! That's alot more grip!!!!!
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    So are you saying that if you have very wide tyres, a low CoG and a huge wheelbase it will corner exactly as fast as a short bike with narrow wheels and a high CoG, provided they are leaned over the same and the rider sits perfectly in line with the bike? You must understand the difference between "effective lean angle" and "visual lean angle". All single track vehicles regardless of wheelbase, CG height etc at 45 degrees will generate exactly 1G at a 45 effective lean angle. Effective lean angle = the angle between the contact patch of the tire and the COG. Visual lean angle is the angle of the bike itself relative to the horizon. Due to tire width, effective lean angle will ALWAYS be less than visual lean angle since the contact patch is ALWAYS on the inside of the lean. For example lets imagine a bike without a rider. If the bike itself is leanning at 45 degrees (visual) with 10cm tire width, the "effective lean angle" will be something like 43 degrees. If the bike had tire width of 50cm, the effective lean angle will be more like 35 degrees. The higher the CG of the bike, the lesser the negative effect of the wider tire. Study the image below: But visual lean angle (black line) is very meaningless. The angle that matters is the "effective lean angle". So who would have thought? Your motorcycle with the 190's on the rear is actually less efficient at executing an aggressive lean angle as a bicycle with skinny tires. Also note that visual lean angle vs effective lean angle are not worlds apart. Even on a very wide tire, the difference would not be that great since the reality is that motorcycle tires are never actually THAT wide. So now that we only look at effective lean angle, i'll repeat. Every single track vehicle at 45 effective lean angle will corner 1G. Mr Code did not pull that number out of his ass trust me. Lean angle and lateral G's are easily calculated using the Tangent function. Lets do some math: tan(0 degrees lean) = 0 lateral G's Tan(10 degrees lean) = 0.176 lateral G's Tan(30 degrees lean) = 0.577 lateral G's Tan(45 degrees lean) = 1 lateral G's Tan(60 degrees lean) = 1.73 Lateral G's Tan(63.3 degrees lean) = 2 Lateral G's The relationship between lean angle and lateral G's is not linear. That means you can't say something like "for every 10 degrees lean, we add another 0.176 G's). Like Mr Code mentioned, once at 45 degrees lean, every little extra lean makes alot of difference regarding lateral G's. So why all this talk about lateral G's? Why is it important? Because lateral G's symbolizes the relationship between a radius and a speed. An example: to negotiate a 200 foot radius turn if you travel at 55mph you will be pulling 1 lateral G. There is no way around that number. Whether you are running, driving in a car, or riding on a bike. 200 foot radius at 55mph will result in 1G of lateral acceleration. That means exactly what it looks like. You MUST be at 45 degrees effective lean angle to ride on the 200 foot radius arc at 55mph. If you go faster, you will lean more and pull higher lateral G's. It also means that if my bicycle tires had enough grip, that I would also be leaning to 45 degrees for this 200 foot radius turn at 55mph. And if I was ice skating following a track of 200 foot radius at 55mph, i would lean to 45 degrees. And my harley davidson if I raised the pipes and pegs and allowed it 45 degree lean, that's how much it would lean on the 200 foot radius at 55mph. A single track vehicle is NOT a car, nomatter how much we want it to be. Lowering the CG, changing wheelbase will NOT effect the fact that 45 degree lean always results in 1 lateral G. Changing wheelbase, C.G. etc will on the other hand effect handling characteristics. But alot of people misunderstand the term "handling". Handling is NOT how hard the vehicle can turn (how many lateral G's it can execute). A Formula 1 car can pull 3 lateral G's in a turn and handle like ###### and an old BMW can pull a max of 0.8 lateral G's and handle brilliantly. Handling is about predictability. Ease of driveability. In the car world it would be something regarding understeer and oversteer. In the bike world it may be regarding how easily the bike flicks from side to side, or how stable it is under trail-braking. This predictability increases confidence. When a driver / rider is confident, they are more comfortable pushing the tires to their absolute limit. I have a tutorial on my website that explains lean angles vs speed vs radius and various thought experiments i've came up with to attempt to explain the physics behind a single track vehicle - ie - motorcycle. Have a look and contact me on facebook if you would like any clarification I'm more than happy to explain... http://www.howfastca...howitworks.html
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    So every source I've read or heard says to accelerate through the corner. The reason is simple - the rear tire is wider and can handle more load. Therefore - you must accelerate to transfer some weight to the rear to give the rear tire it's fair share of load. Even in the riding school to get my motorcycle license they say to brake, and once leaned, crack the throttle open and accelerate. My question is this: Once you get into long turns - 180 degrees or even 270 degree turns, if you enter the turn and flick the bike quickly to an aggressive lean angle and you start accelerating, what would keep you in the turn exactly? The more you accelerate, the faster you go, and the more lean angle required to maintain your radius... So if I start with a maximum lean angle initial turn in, and I accelerate - won't I have to increase lean angle to maintain the same radius turn? If it's a constant radius turn - that could pose a problem. If we take this one step further - a 360 degree turn non stop round and round - how can we possibly accelerate at the recommended .1-.2 G's? Eventually, we will go too fast to stay in the turn... Maybe this is one of those beginner B.S. techniques? When I first started tracking cars - it was the same thing. Accelerate through the corner. When I started getting faster and faster and got into actual racing, it was obvious that technique would never work because on long turns you can't accelerate forever - you'll either start pushing the front or oversteering - simply put, you end up going too fast during the turn. With cars, when you start really going fast, you trail brake carrying loads of speed all the way right before the apex. That point is your slowest point. By no means - SLOW. Because you are going in so hot into the corner under light braking that the back end is always just about to give up... Once at the apex (a bit before depending on the corner) you get on the throttle and accelerate. The acceleration plants the rear end, but also rotates the car since the rear tires are on the verge of being overloaded and slip a little bit. That slip (slight oversteer) points the front towards the inside of the turn. (THIS is not a drift, it's very subtle and probably only the driver is aware of it through steering wheel feel). Anyway, if I would drive a car and get on the throttle right as I turn, and I can accelerate through-out the long 180 degree corner and stay on the road it only means one thing - I'm loosing time because my entry speed was too slow. Most common driving error in comparison to really going fast? Overslowing for a corner. I could have carried more speed into the corner. I remember when I first started tracking cars, the advanced group seemed impossible to achieve. They were so fast. Now after having to run with the front runners in actual racing, when I go to a track day in the advanced group - even with a 20 year old BMW, it's like a parking lot - they are SLOW! And it's obvious why. The advanced group drivers have good car control. They can drive at the limit from the apex to corner exit. That gives them good speed down the straights. But they are still using the old methods that you learn in car control clinics - slow in, turn, and power through the corner... They are all overslowing for each turn. Without getting too technical, to truly go fast in a car, and maybe in a bike, there should NEVER be a point in which you have a constant radius turn. In a 90 degree turn that is constant radius, you should choose a line that is as follows: 1)You start your turn in at high speed 2) As you trail brake into the corner your speed decreases and your radius increases. 3) once at the apex - that's your slowest point, and tightest radius 4) at the apex you start accelerating and naturally unwinding the steering wheel - which increases the radius So at no point you maintain a constant speed and radius. It's constantly changing. I'm inclined to think the same applies for bikes, but I'm new to all this so I thought I would ask. PS - On the other hand - there is a thing called "momentum cars" and "high powered cars". In high powered cars - it's like point a shoot! You slow way down, get the car rotated to the exit - and get on the gas - hard! What are bikes like? Point and shoot? Or momentum? PPS - I've been reading that flicking the bike quickly on turn in in is KEY! In cars, we "build up" traction. Meaning that i can't just turn a car from a straight and do 1.5G's. You kind of have to ease into it to let the tires build up lateral traction. So when we flick the bike too quickly, are we not letting the tires build up lateral traction properly? Just thinking...
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    Good question. This is always an area of confusion for riders. What is the right pressure? Lets start of by establishing some basics. #1, we need to understand that every tire may perform differently at different pressures. What works for one tire may not be the very best for another. #2, Splitting hairs on tire pressure is not going to part the Red Sea. Meaning, 0.5 Psi or 1 Psi change in pressure is not going to change your lap times by 2 seconds or more. So keep perspective, if you ride 15 seconds off the track record your not going to magically go 10 seconds faster with small change in tire pressure. Stick to the recommended till you are going very fast. #3, Higher pressure increases stability at the cost of traction. Lower pressures increases traction at the cost of less stability. There is a workable window here, so don't get extreme variations from the recommended. #4, Tire pressure and tire temperature are linked. As the temperature of the tire rises, so does the pressure. Don't try to control this, let it happen, its normal. #5, (and most important) keep your tire pressure set point consistent. Don't change from cold to hot to off the track. pick cold or hot and stick with it. Definitions: Cold pressure is the pressure you set the tires at if they are cold. The tempature without warmers, just sitting there in the pits or in your garage. Hot pressure (also called off the warmer pressure ) is when you set the pressure on the warmers, when the warmers have been on for 45-60 minutes and the tire is up to temp. Off the track pressure is the pressure of the tire as it comes right off the track after several laps. The urban legends say many different things: some say only check hot some say only check cold check them cold, then check them hot, then reset them when they come of the track some say to adjust the pressure till the hot and off the track pressures are the same some say make the warmers hotter if your don't get a 2 psi rise from cold to hot. These are all methods people have used. lets let these go and start fresh. They are not all correct. Lets look at track day pressures for D209GPA, D211GPA, D211GP N-Tec and N-Tec Slicks. BTW: all of these have N-Tec construction. The recommended Hot is 33 front and 23 rear. That is hot off the warmers. Don't change or reset them. You are done. That's it. That's all you need to know! Go ride. Ride all day. Q&A: What if I want more grip? what if i want more stability? Refer to #3 above - take out 1-2 psi for more traction, add 1-2 psi for more stability, but do this only hot off the warmer. Why check them hot off the warmer instead of cold or off the track? Because the temperature on the warmer will ALWAYS be the same, it will ALWAYS repeat the same temperature, that gives you a BASELINE TEMPERATURE to then set your PRESSURE. But the pressure went up when I checked it off the track, why don't I change it then? Because the pressure off the track is linked to the temperature off the track. That temperature will vary from lap to lap. Higher for fast sessions, and lower for slow sessions. You will forever be chasing a stable point to set your pressure if you check them based on the off the track pressure. The off the track pressure is also after the fact, you are done on the track, checking or changing the pressure then will not change the lap times you just did. I just got off the track and need to make a 2 PSI change NOW and go right back out, I can't wait 30-45 minutes for the tires to stabilize on the warmers to make the change, what do I do now? Check the pressure hot off the track, whatever that reading is, make your change (add 1-2 psi or remove 1-2 psi). Note the change ( + or - ) as your NEW hot off the warmer pressure. Example: After riding you feel a 1 psi change higher is in order. you started hot off the warmer at 23 psi, checking the off the track pressure its 27, you add 1 psi making it 28 psi, note down that your hot off the warmer pressure is now 24 psi, go back out. The next day you ride, set your hot off the warmer psi to 24. I am going 15 seconds off the track record. I am running the recommended PSI that is on the dunlopracing.com website. but I think I should be able to go MUCH FASTER if I change my tire pressure. Should I lower the pressure to get more traction and faster lap times? NO, NO, NO! At those lap times, varying from the recommended will not gain you what you are looking for. Stick with the recommended till you get within 5 seconds of the track record, then start making small 1 psi changes. Only make more changes if you can feel the difference in 2 psi up or down. if you can't feel that change, then that change is not helping you, go back to the recommended. Everything is working good. I love my bike settings, my tires are working great, the Saturday track day was awsome. Now on Sunday the weather is 10 deg hotter. Do I change the pressure to compensate? NO! The pressure will affect the handling and stability of the bike far more than the running tire temperature. When you make a psi change you are also affecting the setup of the bike. I am a slow rider, I am 20 seconds off the fastest pace. I can't seem to get my tires very hot. Should I lower the PSI to get more heat into the tire? NO. Again changing the PSI will affect the handling and stability of the bike more than the running temperature. The big thing to remember is not to put the cart in front of the horse. You are NOT trying to achieve a certain temp or psi. Your tire temp is a RESULT of you riding fast or slow. Yes, fast riders have higher tire temps, but not all high tire temps = going fast. Yes you can do things to the setup and psi to get the tire to run hotter, but that would not be a guarantee of faster lap times. that logic would be like "Ben Spies puts his right finger on the break lever, Ben wins races, I will put my right finger on the break lever, I will win races". Not logical or workable. If you are a slower rider you will not have as much heat as a faster rider, FACT. But at a slower pace you are not using the same level of grip as a fast rider. You are concerning yourself with something that is not a problem, Listen closer in the classroom and spend more time on the track doing laps. Use the recommended psi till you start going faster. I don't have warmers. what do i set my pressure at? Set your pressure at 2 psi lower than the hot recommended pressure. Take 2 laps to get some heat in the tire before you start pushing it. Generaly you will get a 2 psi rise from cold to hot. The variable is the outside temperature. Could be 40 deg or 90 deg in the morning when you check it. that is why checking it on the warmer is more stable point to check psi. Cold temps always have this variable attached to them, but this in not more than 1 maybe 2 psi. 1-2 psi would not make the difference in a rider going 15 seconds off the pace, so don't go overboard here. just check it, do 2 warm-up laps, and then ride. Lets talk about pressure changes as the temp increases: Generally, you will see 2 psi rise from cold to hot off the warmers. If you have warmers there is no need to check them cold. 45-60 minutes on the warmer and then check them hot. Fast riders may see 2-3 psi front and 3-5 psi rear rise from hot off the warmers to off the track. there really is no need to check the off the track. It is more important to listen to the rider and what he feels is going on. If the rider likes it, leave it alone. This is importaint: you only need to check rise to make sure there is not a very big rise 9+ psi. Check it once and no need to keep checking it. you are more likely to lower the psi from checking needlessly many times. If by chance you get a very large rise, 9+ psi, you probobly have excess humidity in your tire, the tires are getting very hot or you have stock or bad suspension. You need to replace the air in the tire with dry air from a better compressor or put dry nitrogen in it. This condition will only happen if you have high temps at track like Daytona, Willow Springs and others. If this condition is occurring, and you are a fast rider, you need to be in direct communication with your tire supplier for tech advice and not on a forum. Everything is going fine, I check my psi hot every morning, rise looks good. Then today i checked my rise and I only got 2 psi rise in the rear and I normally get 3. What do I do? Don't change anything. Don't split hairs. Refer to #2 above -------------- Does anyone have specific tire combinations they want PRESSURE advice on ?
  50. 1 like
    Commitment What You Do and How Often The actions of riding one lap of a complex circuit with say 13 corners, like our favorite training track, the Streets of Willow Springs, breaks down something like this: Throttle position changes (including throttle blips) 50 Steering inputs 22 Gear changes 20 Clutch actions (downshifts only) 10 Front brake pulls and releases 14 --- Total 116 The 116 number doesn?t include any error or terror corrections you might make with the throttle, steering or brakes so the number could be well in excess of these 116 control inputs. Note: A lap at Laguna is only about 10% fewer actions. More Laps More Actions How much physical conditioning does it take to roll the throttle on and off 50 times every minute and a half to two minutes; shift the gear lever 20 times; push on the bars 22 times? Not a lot for one lap but over the course of 25 laps it tends to add up. At 25 laps there are approximately 3,000 actions that you would have to perform to complete a national or world level event or mini-endurance race or, perhaps in your case, a track day. Hmmmmmm. Even on a club level 8 lap event or track day session you begin pushing 1,000 actions performed for the 12 to 20 minutes of riding. What creates a great ride? It?s the precision, it?s the exact degree you roll on the throttle or pull the brakes and it is the WHERE and WHEN of each of the 2,900 actions that adds up to a good event or a good day at the track. As above, if you are making mistakes, add a few dozen to that number. Novice Lag I would like to cite an interesting and revealing point here. Despite the fact that a rider may be going twenty seconds a lap slower than a pro, the number of actions performed doesn?t decrease, most likely it increases. Due to errors and corrections a less skillful rider is making, that number may be significantly higher. This has a direct impact on the amount of time the novice rider has to identify and initiate a correct and accurate control response--he is still busy fixing the last one. I?m sure you can recall some examples of this. For any riding situation, the important inputs into the bike often take a back seat to the ones generated by the rider?s own errors. The important ones get stepped on, they are late, the rider feels frenzied; now the bike isn?t responding the way he wants it to, when he wants it to. Comparing Skills Comparing a lap record time on any given track to that of a typical street rider?s lap time, and dividing the number of actions per lap, there is, on average, an action performed every .7 seconds for the pro and about every 1 second for the novice track rider. That is calculated without the errors. With the errors figured in, the novice rider is actually ?busy? with the bike on a non stop basis. He?s getting tired and tense and mentally blows himself away with no time to observe what he is doing between actions. That?s because there is no ?between?, it has been consumed correcting his errors! Looking at a no error novice lap: you see the rider is spending almost 30 seconds each lap looking things over where the pro is responding to his impressions and perceptions and committing himself without the lag time. The pro is using 30% less time to observe and respond. From this perspective, a rider who has shortened the lag between identifying the situation and responding with the correct control in the correct amount, is, by definition, more skillful, more confident and can and will go faster and is in better control. This could be called a rider?s recognition /response level. No Time If you put telemetry on the bike and counted the number of throttle and steering corrections the novice was making that the pro wasn?t, you?d see that the novice rider?s time is chock full of things to do: too full to be accurate too full to have the time to observe; too full to make good decisions. This comparison brings up a bunch of questions about what causes the differences in the pro?s time and the novice rider?s time. 1. Is it physical response time? 2. Familiarity with the road or track? 3. Understanding of the riding procedures like throttle control, corner entry speeds, etc.? 4. Feel for the bike and tires and what they are doing? 5. The rider?s sense of time and timing? 6. Good visual skills? 7. The riders?s ability to perceive speed and speed changes from lap to lap? 8. Some unique combination of the above that defines the ?fast? or in-control rider? While these may all qualify as reasons, each one of them is practically an entire technical subject in itself. This is why I started breaking down the actions of riding into drills in 1976 and began creating a system for improvement. There is a lot going on. The Next Now, The Future If you were trying to dissect and remedy your own recognition/response ?lag time? it would be easy to generalize that lag as uncertainty, lack of confidence or unfamiliarity. Does labeling it like this solve it though? Decidedly not. The lag-time differential from the pro to the novice is based on where each have their attention focused. The novice?s attention is focused on handling the right now moment, or quite often, the even worse scenario, of lingering on the action he just performed. As an example, barely cracking the throttle open and freezing, as opposed to committing to rolling on the gas, are quite a bit different aren?t they? When you get just past mid corner and you?ve lagged on your roll-on and you realize you could have just kept going instead of sitting there like a mushroom with a twistgrip in your hand. That is your recognition/response lag time working against you. This should send a message to you. You must find out what caused the lag. Was it your bike telling you something or your survival instincts that caused the hesitation? Was it a real reason not to roll on? It could be real, like getting on a bad line. In either case, you need to know so you can master it. Living in the Past Lingering on these past actions is what creates hesitation: this is the root cause of lack of commitment, it also adds that 3/10ths second on average to each of your actions. Would you call this lack of commitment? It looks that way but it could also be caused by a lack of understanding. Quick Flick Time Riders learning how to quick flick the bike have one variety of this problem. They are wary of the follow up corrections they might have to make to their entry line. The idea of committing to the turn quickly gives them a queasy feeling. They aren?t confident they?ll have the time to observe and correct their line. But this is wrong thinking, they?re actually burning up their observation time with hesitation. In this quick flick example, we see this fact--- turning the bike quickly, where it is appropriate, gives the rider more time to observe results than the lazy, non-flick steering method. The time he spends lazily bringing it over never does have a definite end result, not until it is completed. The bike isn?t pointed until it is pointed. Do you see this? Quick flicking with confidence is a barrier riders push through. Training, and a little nagging from your instructor, helps push you through it. You can do this. Throttle control is much the same. A short lag of only 3/10ths of a second to get back on the throttle goes by rapidly. It?s not much time. Just get yourself a stopwatch and click it twice to see how long 3/10ths is--but at 60 MPH it is 4 bike lengths! Can you imagine yourself lagging that long getting the gas back on? Probably longer, right? Rules of Commitment Completing actions is what buys you the time to observe and predict the results. Being half hearted and non committal on control actions only holds you back. You can?t easily predict the outcome of an action on the bike until it is at least started. When you are hesitant, you are giving yourself less time to respond. It seems (on the Survival Response level) you are making more of it but that?s not true. Confidence can be defined as: control inputs, started and completed; which lead to a known and desired result. Being decisive, with the smallest possible lag time, is safer in the end. Smooth Is Quick. Quick Is Smooth. When you think of smooth do you normally consider how quickly you do things with the bike?. If you are thinking that slowing down your actions is going to make it smoother, think again. The fact of the matter is that the pro is getting the same number of actions completed as you but using 1/3 less time to do them...and looking smooth. Take simultaneous braking and downshifting as another example. The quicker you can make your throttle blip and get the clutch in and out the smoother it becomes. Gear-changes up are the same way, the quicker the smoother. Quick shift mechanisms are a great example of quicker is smoother. Thinking Compared to Doing Thinking about riding does not always bring us into a state of grace with the bike and road. Riders say, ?I want to have higher corner speed?, ?I want quicker lap times?,?I want to brake harder, deeper, slicker, quicker?. They want to go fast and find it isn?t easy. It?s a rare and special ability to ?think yourself faster?, failing at this, they ask for the tricks to achieving it. But there aren?t any ?advanced? techniques for someone who is still fumbling with their basics. Well crafted lessons and good observant one-on-one instruction can prepare you to get what you want. You do have to push through these barriers. Sometimes it doesn?t feel fast when you are thinking it through and grinding on yourself to perfect a technique. Well, that?s the way it is. Live it, reach for it, embrace the butterflies, immerse yourself in the stress. All the cornering demons have one thing in common, they can?t stand the heat of commitment. Learn the skills, shorten the lag and beat the demons! Keith Code